Cessna Citation M2
Peppier performance, solid customer support
The M2 features stronger engines. The Williams FJ44-1AP-21 turbofans, a marketing designation for -1AP engines, have a 2% N1 fan speed throttle push in the FADEC software and durability improvements. The modified engines produce up to 5% more hot-and-high thrust and 10 to 15% more cruise thrust than the -1AP engines that power the CJ+.
As a result of this the M2 has better takeoff, climb and cruise performance. It typically cruises at 390 to 400 KTAS, as much as 20 kt. faster than the CJ1+. Indeed, it’s the fastest light jet priced under $5 million when equipped with typical options.
The engine’s durability improvements increase TBO from 3,500 hr. to 5,000 hr. if the operator is enrolled in Williams’ Total Assurance Program (TAP) Blue engine service program.
M2 operators want predictable operating costs and no surprises. Most are enrolled in TAP Blue at $280.58 per hour [total for two engines].
Operators are particularly happy with the Williams FJ44-1AP-21 turbofans.
Business & Commercial Aviation, October 2016
Williams International is consistently among the top engine manufacturers subjected to customer support and engine reliability surveys.
The company opened its doors in 1955 and has expanded in terms of development, manufacturing and support for its line of small-jet turbine engines covering a thrust range from 1,000 to 3,600 pounds.
In Poland this summer, Flaris announced it had selected the Williams FJ33-5A to power its LAR 1 five-seat single-engine very light jet. The LAR 1 prototype was unveiled at the Paris Air Show in 2013 and certification was expected this year. With the FJ33-5A engine producing 1,700 pounds of thrust, the all-composite aircraft is expected to have a max cruise speed of 380 knots and maximum range of 1,700 nautical miles.
No less impressive is the selection of the FJ44-4A turbofan to power the new PC-24 business jet from Swiss OEM Pilatus. Perhaps the most remarkable feature of the engine can be used as an auxiliary power unit (APU) on the ground. Certification of the PC-24 is expected in 2017. It will be Pilatus’ first business jet.
Then there’s the Nextant 400XTi, perhaps the ultimate in an upgrade. It is a remanufactured Beechcraft 400A/XP. It will be powered by the FJ44-3AP, a power plant Williams claims is 32 percent more fuel efficient than its predecessors. The Williams FJ44-3AP engines have performed well in tests, indicating maintenance costs 27 percent less than for the engines it replaces, and 5,000 hours between overhauls. It will also produce 32-percent fewer greenhouse gases than previous generation engines, claims Nextant.
BART: NOVEMBER – DECEMBER 2015
By Kirby Harrison
Operators Survey: Beechjet 400A/Hawker 400XP/Nextant 400XT
The next major upgrade opportunity?
Nextant Aerospace and Textron’s Hawker Beechcraft Service unit believe 400A/400XP aircraft have second lives when they are upgraded with new technology Williams International FJ44-series powerplants, among other modifications including flat-panel avionics and new interiors.
When the 400XP went out of production in 2010, it was the last light jet to be powered by JT15D engines. All other light jet makers had migrated to newer technology engines, such as the FJ44 series turbofans that power current-generation narrowbody Citations.
The FJ44-3 and -4 variants are well suited as replacements for the original JT15D-5/-5R engines on 400A/400XP aircraft. They offer superior heavy/hot/high performance, one-third better fuel efficiency, lower noise and exhaust gas emissions, and longer times between overhauls.
Nextant 400XT operators generally give their aircraft high marks for climb performance, Pro Line 21 avionics, fuel efficiency and reduced operating cost.
Business & Commercial Aviation, December 2014
Cessna Citation CJ2+
"The CJ2+ is the sweet spot in this series [of CJs]," says Tom Oreck, who operates s.n. 491. We can climb directly to FL 450, even in ISA+ temperatures, in 20 to 25 min., above the traffic and weather so we often get direct routing. It accelerates up to the [high-speed cruise] numbers and it sips fuel."
"It cruises at better than book speeds and it costs less per mile than a Citation Mustang or a Beech King Air 200," says Bob Lowery, who flies s.n. 308. BCA’s May 2012 Purchase Planning Handbook indicates that both the Citation Mustang and King Air 200GT have slightly better fuel efficiency on most trips. But overall operating costs of the CJ2+ could be less because it flies faster on virtually all missions and thus logs fewer engine and airframe hours, thereby reducing maintenance costs.
[Owner operators and corporate fleet operators] both gave high marks to the Williams FJ44-3A-24 turbofan engines. They said they’re well matched to the airframe, providing sporty performance, fast climb times and excellent fuel efficiency. Just as importantly, the engines are very reliable according to survey respondents.
Business & Commercial Aviation, October 2012
Nextant’s new jet [400XT] can make nonstop flights that owners of a 400A could only dream about.
It’s safe to say that without the Williams engines, there would be no Nextant 400XT.
The engines are revolutionary enhancements over the state of the art of even 10 years ago. They are quieter, more fuel-efficient and more reliable. . . The FJ44 is a remarkable 32 percent more efficient, based on the Pratt it replaces, and it gives the 400XT more power, more range, better hot and high performance and much better operating economies.
Taxiing was a no-brainer, thanks to the lower residual thrust of the Williams engines. On takeoff, there was plenty of power. Simply put the throttles to the "takeoff" position, release the brakes and hang on.
It was a gusty day in central Texas, and Austin Bergstrom had gusty crosswinds, so I had my work cut out for me. This is where the low inertia of the Williams engines comes in handy, since spool-up times are fairly low for such powerful engines, and the power you have to work with once they come up to power is great.
Flying Magazine, October 2011
Nextant takes Beechjets Upscale
Nextant’s goal is to capitalize on the Beechjet’s prime asset—its comfortable cabin—and boost its performance by swapping out the stock airplanes’ dated, thirsty, and less powerful (2,965 lbst) Pratt & Whitney JT15D-5 engines for a pair of 3,050 lbst Williams International FJ44-3AP engines. Nextant says that the FJ44s burn 32 percent less fuel than the old Pratts, weigh 240 pounds less, and have 4,000-hour TBOs—versus the JT15Ds’ 3,600 hours. Other benefits include FADEC controls and less greenhouse gas emissions. Nextant calls its remanufactured Beechjet the 400XT.
Thomas A. Horne
AOPA Pilot, September 2011
The effortless acceleration and smooth jet buzz from the Williams turbofans will certainly sweeten the deal for any pilot contemplating a step up to jet power.
Adam A700 review in the Robb Report, December 2006
Aero Heart Transplants: engine upgrades yield more-youthful performance.
Just as Williams International’s FJ44 powerplant spawned a redefinition of the entry-level business jet, this powerplant family underpins the majority of the light-jet-powerplant upgrades.
World Aircraft Sales Magazine, September 2008
"The idea is both scary and thrilling—one small engine that you depend on for four days to fly further than man has ever flown before."
Mike Foale, Astronaut: speech prior to Steve Fossett's take-off in the Williams-Powered
Virgin Alantic GlobalFlyer - from Steve Fossett's autobiography "Chasing the Wind" 2006
Big Power in Small Packages
Established, experienced airplane makers are now developing four-to-five-seat Personal Jets powered by one jet where two has long been the norm. Williams’ FJ33 currently owns the market for the upcoming Personal jet field as the engine of choice for Cirrus Design’s the-jet and Diamond Aircraft’s D-Jet. If other Personal Jet players emerge, Williams stands likely to capture the power spot on them if past is prologue, because, since its landmark certification of the FJ44, Williams has dominated both the Light and Very Light Jet segments. . .
Williams’ engineers focus continually on ways to improve and advance both its engines and the manufacturing technologies behind them. You can see evidence of this successful approach in how Williams continuously improved and refined both the FJ44 and FJ33 lines to raise their power, reduce their fuel consumption and increase their reliability. . .
Williams engineers also worked at figuring out how to combine the functions of many parts into one part, then inventing new manufacturing processes and new ways to solve problems. This philosophy informed the whole company, and it shows in the low parts count and impressive reliability record built up by the FJ44 over its 3.5 million hours of operation and in the list of companies selecting Williams’ engines to power their aircraft.
World Aircraft Sales Magazine, June 2008
"When you watch the autopilot capture the altitude at FL370 and the airspeed build to well over 500 mph on fuel flows that would make an early Citation blush, when you consider the capability of this airplane to easily complete a 2,000-mile journey with little planning, the SJ30 impresses you as a serious business tool capable of restoring a few more useful hours to the lives of people who fly a lot."
SJ30 Pilot Report by Robert P. Mark
Aviation International News, November 2006
FJ44-3 Engines on Sierra’s Super II conversion makes for a super Citation
The acceleration was impressive. . . Thirteen minutes and 45 seconds after brake release, we were leveling at FL410.
Another reason why the Super II performs better is because its thrust does not fall off as quickly at altitude. . . Thrust at altitude equals cruise speed. The max cruise speed of the Citation II is listed at 376 knots. The Super II claims 420 knots max cruise but – as if by magic – it does it on essentially the same fuel burn.
After the big fan pumps the air into the engine, the modern technology in the core of the engine combined with the benefits of FADEC improve the engine’s specific fuel consumption from 16 percent to 27 percent over the JT-15D, depending on altitude. The payoff here comes in operating expense and, sometimes more important than money, range.
The max range of the Citation II is short of 1400 nm. If the fuel efficiency of the FJ44 is used for range instead of speed, it can stretch its legs to almost 1800 nm. Most operators won’t often need or use that range, but having it available provides options.
Twin & Turbine, May 2008
"I concluded that jets should not be more expensive than turboprops. I also thought that people who bought turboprops really wanted jets but were put off by their high cost. That was the best market for business jets, if they could be made more efficient and affordable." That was the starting point for what would become the SJ30 project. But first Swearingen’s vision of such an aircraft would need a much lighter, less costly jet engine. "I shopped all the engine manufacturers and finally met with Sam Williams who had developed a small jet engine rated at 1,800 pounds of thrust, which was eventually brought up to 2,300 pounds. It cost less than a turboprop, and that little engine actually made it possible to build the SJ30."
Ed Swearingen interview by Jack Carroll
BART, Oct-Nov 2006
Engine Mods Take Off
"There’s been 30 years of technological change incorporated in the Williams engines," says Huffstutler... "We’ve got a great relationship with Williams."
"For the Citation II, the biggest problem was the need to step climb to altitude. The FJ44 cures that problem," says Jim Clifford of Clifford Development. "It’s hard to believe, but the Williams engines with FADEC don’t need thrust reversers on the Citation," he says, adding that the accelerate-stop distance is reduced 18 percent. How can that be? "With the FADEC at ground idle on the squat switch, these engines can go to lower rpm, so the engine acts more like a speed brake. With the old fuel control you can only spool down so far because if you had to apply power, you might burn it up. In 25 years, the engines have just gotten better."
George C. Larson
Business & Commercial Aviation, December 2006
Sino Swearingen SJ30-2
The smallest business aircraft with coast-to-coast range and real jet speed
"The key enabling technology for the SA30 would be the availability of a new engine, as it has always been throughout the history of powered flight. About the same time that Swearingen was freezing the basic SA30 design, Burt Rutan was completing tests of his all-composite, proof-of-concept Triumph business jet in Mojave, Calif. The Triumph was fitted with two revolutionary 1,800-pound-thrust, Williams International FJ44 high-bypass turbofans that were priced substantially lower, weighed considerably less and achieved better fuel economy than existing light turbofan engines. The FJ44 was the technological breakthrough for which Swearingen had been waiting to make possible the SA30. . . ""The aircraft stabilized at 435 KTAS fuel flow of 740 pph. That’s a specific range of 0.587 nm/pound—the best fuel efficiency we’ve yet recorded for a business aircraft cruising at this speed. . . ""The SJ30-2 is the fastest, most fuel efficient and long-range light jet in its class. . ."
Business & Commercial Aviation, September 2006
"A Citation 525 operator had this to say of Williams’s factory support: ‘Walled Lake has turned out 10 engines for us on budget and on time, and loaners, parts and tools have been perfect.’ "
AIN 2006 Product Support Survey, September 2006
"In April, the first A700 AdamJet flew to 41,000 feet and achieved a true airspeed of 340 knots, demonstrating the aircraft’s flight capabilities. ‘When they hit 41,000 feet, the A700 was still climbing at 1,500 feet per minute, which is unheard of in a light jet,’ Rick Adam said. ‘It looks like the airplane has lots of extra power.’ The A700 is a turbofan-powered, six-seat aircraft, driven by two Williams International FJ33 engines."
S. Clayton Moore
Airport Journals, July 2006
"Starting the SportJet is an extremely simple process thanks to the Williams FJ33-4A engine and the Full Authority Digital Engine Control... I was particularly impressed with the low cabin noise level even before efforts are made to insulate and control cabin noise... The engine is a dream powerplant."
James M. Stewart
Flight Research Test Pilot
After his first flight in the Excel-Jet SportJet 25 May 2006
"We are absolutely delighted with this [first] flight," said Christian Dries, CEO of Diamond Aircraft, who flew the chase aircraft. "The test flight went exactly as planned. What more could you ask for? Our crew did a fabulous job and we are very grateful for the support received from Williams, Garmin, Parker, Argotech and our other partners." The D-JET is a 5 place luxury personal jet powered by the FADEC controlled Williams FJ33 turbine.
Diamond Aircraft, 18 April 2006
"A big plus for Citation Jets one and two New Collins Pro Line 21 avionics suite is great, but the climb and cruise performance improvements steal the show
Instead of just adding full-authority digital engine controls (FADEC) to control and simplify operation of the engines on the CJs, Cessna took the opportunity to install new models of the Williams FJ44 family of turbofans. The new FJ44-1AP on the 1+ is rated at 1,961 pounds of thrust for takeoff, which is 61 pounds more than the previous engine. On the 2+ engine power is increased by 90 pounds per side. But the thrust gain is not the whole story. It’s the optimized design of the engines that makes the difference. . .
The performance the new engines deliver is wonderful, but nearly as nice is the ease of operation provided by the FADECs. In the earlier CJs you were constantly fiddling with the thrust levers to set power on takeoff and throughout the climb. Hardly a minute would go by without need for an adjustment in N1 fan speed as the altitude changed. Now, with the FADECs, you simply push the levers to the takeoff detent, once safely up and climbing pull back to the maximum continuous power detent, and that’s it. In cruise you can use the max cruise detent, or set any intermediate power. The level of workload reduction is amazing, and particularly welcome in airplanes that are often flown with a single pilot. . .
The FADECs now reduce engine idle power to a level where the attenuators are not necessary. Elimination of the attenuators saves at least 24 pounds of weight and eliminates an entire system with its hydraulic lines, wires and switches. . .Despite the weight increases to both airplanes, runway performance actually improves. Required runway for takeoff and landing is reduced at least a little under all conditions. Part of the explanation for less runway at higher weights is the increased engine thrust for takeoff. But the engines also play a part in shortening landing distances because the FADECs reduce idle thrust, allowing the new airplanes to touchdown sooner without the residual idle thrust pushing them down the runway. . .
With no increase in fuel capacity both new CJs have longer range. . ."
J. Mac McClellan,
Flying Magazine, April 2006
"We have found the Williams FJ33 engine meets or exceeds our expectations in performance and fuel burn. The engine and Williams support have been flawless since we began flying the engines in July 2003."
Bill Mermelstein, Adam Aircraft, December 2005
"... a beautiful flight. The FADEC-controlled Williams turbofan engines were exceptionally responsive, and the jet’s handling was very predictable and smooth."
Test Pilot Fuschino, ATG, December 2005
Linden Blue selected the [FJ33 for Spectrum] because it offers better high-altitude performance and superior fuel efficiency."
Business and Commercial Aviation, December 2005
"Williams Int’ls NBAA exhibit features its engines lined up in order of thrust. It’s an excellent illustration of technological trends. From the 1900-lb thrust FJ44-1 to the 3500-lb-thrust FJ44-4 - almost twice as powerful - the fan diameter increases by only a few inches. But the blade shape changes a lot - an indication of how the company advanced its Williams Wide Sweep technology from one engine to the next. No hollow blades here - the Williams fans are small enough to let the company hog the entire unit out of one titanium forging, which arrives at Williams’ Ogden UT factory looking like a giant silvery biscuit and leaves as a jewel-like fan."
Professional Pilot, November 2005
"After a tough competition, we selected Williams as our production partner because of their superior reputation, their advanced technology engines, and their commitment to product support for our high performance jet."
Charlie Johnson, President and COO of ATG, August 2005
"Let me say, that without a doubt the FJ44-2As were flawless in their performance. I personally monitored the engine performance during the trip and I must say, there was never any doubt the engines were dead on in all parameters. These are outstanding engines!"
Fred Lohden, Chief Pilot
Around the World Flight (Cessna 501 Citation), August 2004
"Williams International is a family-owned business that is a world leader in the design, development and manufacture of small gas turbine engines and their related technology. Their schedule performance has been outstanding. Over a one-year period, more than 20 different engine concepts and cycles have been analyzed and evaluated with NASA."
Nasa Administrator, April 2003
"For his unequaled achievements as a gifted inventor, tenacious entrepreneur, risk-taker, and engineering genius in making the U.S.A. number one in small gas turbine engine technology and competitiveness, and for his phenomenal leadership in helping revive the depressed United States general aviation business jet industry."
Citation for Medal of Technology, October 1996
"In making lasting contributions to aviation and national defense over the last 35 years, Sam Williams has surely epitomized all the spirit and achievement of the Wright Brothers. His many insights, inventions, and innovations have proved to be vital steps along the path to aviation progress inaugurated by Orville and Wilbur Wright at Kitty Hawk 85 years ago."
Citation for Wright Brothers Memorial Trophy, December 2, 1988
"I am pleased to congratulate you on your achievements in miniature engine technology which have won you the 1978 Collier Trophy of the National Aeronautic Association. In accepting this prestigious honor, you join a select group of aviation pioneers who, through personal endeavor and talent, have helped advance America’s technological leadership and scientific excellence."
Citation for Collier Trophy, May 9, 1978